Minerva originated as an Etruscan goddess (Menrva, Menarva, Meneruva or Menrfa), whom the early Romans associated with the Greek Athena. She was originally a goddess of commerce, schools and industry, but later became a warrior goddess. One derivation of her became Roma, the Roman city goddess.
Roman coins commonly show her as a warrior standing in the prow of a galley. She is sometimes accompanied by an owl, attesting to her association with Athena.
Minerva, along with Mars, was celebrated for five days during the spring equinox at the Quinquartrus. As one of the most important Roman goddesses, she had devotees throughout the Empire.
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